Glioblastoma vaccines: past, present, and opportunities

PMID: 38183840
Journal: EBioMedicine (volume: 100, issue: , EBioMedicine 2024 Jan;100:104963)
Published: 2024-01-05

Xiong Z, Raphael I, Olin M, Okada H, Li X, Kohanbash G


Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal central nervous systems (CNS) tumours in adults. As supplements to standard of care (SOC), various immunotherapies improve the therapeutic effect in other cancers. Among them, tumour vaccines can serve as complementary monotherapy or boost the clinical efficacy with other immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) therapy. Previous studies in GBM therapeutic vaccines have suggested that few neoantigens could be targeted in GBM due to low mutation burden, and single-peptide therapeutic vaccination had limited efficacy in tumour control as monotherapy. Combining diverse antigens, including neoantigens, tumour-associated antigens (TAAs), and pathogen-derived antigens, and optimizing vaccine design or vaccination strategy may help with clinical efficacy improvement. In this review, we discussed current GBM therapeutic vaccine platforms, evaluated and potential antigenic targets, current challenges, and perspective opportunities for efficacy improvement.