Reviewing the significance of dendritic cell vaccines in interrupting breast cancer development

PMID: 38150884
Journal: Molecular aspects of medicine (volume: 95, issue: , Mol Aspects Med 2024 Feb;95:101239)
Published: 2023-12-26

Gautam N, Ramamoorthi G, Champion N, Han HS, Czerniecki BJ


Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and is the most prevalent cancer in women. According to the U.S breast cancer statistics, about 1 in every 8 women develop an invasive form of breast cancer during their lifetime. Immunotherapy has been a significant advancement in the treatment of cancer with multiple studies reporting favourable patient outcomes by modulating the immune response to cancer cells. Here, we review the significance of dendritic cell vaccines in treating breast cancer patients. We discuss the involvement of dendritic cells and oncodrivers in breast tumorigenesis, highlighting the rationale for targeting oncodrivers and neoantigens using dendritic cell vaccine therapy. We review different dendritic cell subsets and maturation states previously used to develop vaccines and suggest the use of DC vaccines for breast cancer prevention. Further, we highlight that the intratumoral delivery of type 1 dendritic cell vaccines in breast cancer patients activates tumor antigen-specific CD4 T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cells, promoting an anti-tumorigenic immune response while concurrently blocking pro-tumorigenic responses. In summary, this review provides an overview of the current state of dendritic cell vaccines in breast cancer highlighting the challenges and considerations necessary for an efficient dendritic cell vaccine design in interrupting breast cancer development.