Neutrophils in Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Vaccination: The Potential Roles of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation
Neutrophils have conflicting roles in the context of cancers, where they have been associated with contributing to both anti-tumor and pro-tumor responses. Their functional heterogenicity is plastic and can be manipulated by environmental stimuli, which has fueled an area of research investigating therapeutic strategies targeting neutrophils. Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccination is an immunotherapy that has exhibited clinical promise but has shown limited clinical efficacy. Enhancing our understanding of the communications occurring during DC cancer vaccination can uncover opportunities for enhancing the DC vaccine platform. There have been observed communications between neutrophils and DCs during natural immune responses. However, their crosstalk has been poorly studied in the context of DC vaccination. Here, we review the dual functionality of neutrophils in the context of cancers, describe the crosstalk between neutrophils and DCs during immune responses, and discuss their implications in DC cancer vaccination. This discussion will focus on how neutrophil extracellular traps can influence immune responses in the tumor microenvironment and what roles they may play in promoting or hindering DC vaccine-induced anti-tumor efficacy.