Dendritic cell vaccines improve the glioma microenvironment: Influence, challenges, and future directions
INTRODUCTION: Gliomas, especially the glioblastomas, are one of the most aggressive intracranial tumors with poor prognosis. This might be explained by the heterogeneity of tumor cells and the inhibitory immunological microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the most potent in vivo functional antigen-presenting cells, link innate immunity with adaptive immunity. However, their function is suppressed in gliomas. Therefore, overcoming the dysfunction of DCs in the TME might be critical to treat gliomas.
METHOD: In this paper we proposed the specificity of the glioma microenvironment, analyzed the pathways leading to the dysfunction of DCs in tumor microenvironment of patients with glioma, summarized influence of DC-based immunotherapy on the tumor microenvironment and proposed new development directions and possible challenges of DC vaccines.
RESULT: DC vaccines can improve the immunosuppressive microenvironment of glioma patients. It will bring good treatment prospects to patients. We also proposed new development directions and possible challenges of DC vaccines, thus providing an integrated understanding of efficacy on DC vaccines for glioma treatment.