Oncolytic Viruses for the Treatment of Bladder Cancer: Advances, Challenges, and Prospects
Bladder cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers. Despite recent advancements in bladder cancer therapy, new strategies are still required for improving patient outcomes, particularly for those who experienced Bacille Calmette-Guerin failure and those with locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer. Oncolytic viruses are either naturally occurring or purposefully engineered viruses that have the ability to selectively infect and lyse tumor cells while avoiding harming healthy cells. In light of this, oncolytic viruses serve as a novel and promising immunotherapeutic strategy for bladder cancer. A wide diversity of viruses, including adenoviruses, herpes simplex virus, coxsackievirus, Newcastle disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, alphavirus, and vaccinia virus, have been studied in many preclinical and clinical studies for their potential as oncolytic agents for bladder cancer. This review aims to provide an overview of the advances in oncolytic viruses for the treatment of bladder cancer and highlights the challenges and research directions for the future.