Immunogenic Cell Death Enhances Immunotherapy of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: From Preclinical to Clinical Studies
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the most lethal tumor involving the pediatric central nervous system. The median survival of children that are diagnosed with DIPG is only 9 to 11 months. More than 200 clinical trials have failed to increase the survival outcomes using conventional cytotoxic or myeloablative chemotherapy. Immunotherapy presents exciting therapeutic opportunities against DIPG that is characterized by unique and heterogeneous features. However, the non-inflammatory DIPG microenvironment greatly limits the role of immunotherapy in DIPG. Encouragingly, the induction of immunogenic cell death, accompanied by the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) shows satisfactory efficacy of immune stimulation and antitumor strategies. This review dwells on the dilemma and advances in immunotherapy for DIPG, and the potential efficacy of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in the immunotherapy of DIPG.