Leveraging epigenetics to enhance the efficacy of cancer-testis antigen: a potential candidate for immunotherapy
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in women. The phenotype is characterized by delayed diagnosis, recurrence and drug resistance. Inherent immunogenicity potential, oncogenic function and expression of cancer-testis/germline antigen (CTA) in ovarian cancer render them a potential candidate for immunotherapy. Revolutionary clinical findings indicate that tumor antigen-mediated T-cell and dendritic cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches provide an excellent strategy for targeting tumors. Currently, dendritic cell vaccination for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma and CTA-based T-cell receptor transduced T-cell therapy involving MAGE-A4 and NY-ESO-1 are well documented and shown to be effective. This review highlighted the mechanical aspects of epigenetic drugs that can elicit a CTA-based humoral and cellular immune response and implicate T-cell and dendritic cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches.