The development of immunotherapeutic methods for the treatment of oncological diseases have made it possible to improve the effectiveness of standard therapies. There was no breakthrough after first using of personalized therapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells in clinical practice. A deeper study of the biology of dendritic cells, as well as the use of new approaches and agents for antigenic work, have made it possible to expand the field of application of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines and improve the indicators of cancer patients. In addition, the low toxicity of DC vaccines in clinical trials makes it possible to use promising predictions of their applicability in wider clinical practice. This review examines new approaches and recent advances of the DC vaccine in clinical trials.