A recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), encoding either a human (NDVhuGM-CSF, MEDI5395) or murine (NDVmuGM-CSF) GM-CSF transgene, combined broad oncolytic activity with ability to significantly modulate genes related to immune functionality in human tumor cells. Replication in murine tumor lines was significantly diminished relative to human tumor cells. Nonetheless, intratumoral injection of NDVmuGM-CSF conferred antitumor effects in three syngeneic models in vivo; with efficacy further augmented by concomitant treatment with anti-PD-1/L-1 or T cell agonists. Ex vivo immune-profiling, including TCRseq, revealed profound immune-contexture changes; consistent with priming and potentiation of adaptive immunity and tumor-microenvironment (TME) re-programming towards an immune-permissive state. CRISPR modifications rendered CT26 significantly more permissive to NDV replication, and in this setting NDVmuGM-CSF confers immune-mediated¬¬¬¬¬¬ effects in the non-injected tumor in vivo. Taken together the data supports the thesis that MEDI5395 primes and augments cell mediated antitumor immunity and has significant utility as a combination partner with other immunomodulatory cancer treatments.