Tumor development and progression are closely associated with various microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs). We have previously shown that Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain 7793 induces oncolysis in lung cancer. However, how NDV exerts its oncolytic effect on lung cancer remains to be investigated. The present study assessed the role of miR-204 in the NDV-induced oncolysis of lung cancer A549 cells by oncolysis induction . miR-204 was significantly upregulated in NDV-treated A549 cells. Overexpression or inhibition of miR-204 was significantly associated with NDV-induced oncolysis in A549 cells. Caspase-3 and Bax, major regulators of the apoptosis pathway, were regulated by miR-204, and the association between caspase-3-related apoptosis and miR-204 was identified in NDV-mediated oncolysis. These data demonstrated that miR-204 as a tumor suppressor played a role in NDV-induced oncolysis in lung cancer cells. The present study demonstrates the potential of strategies using miRs to improve oncolytic NDV potency, and highlights miR-204 as a tumor suppressor in NDV-induced oncolysis of lung cancer cells.