Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is endowed with the oncolytic ability to kill tumor cells, while rarely causing side effects in normal cells. Both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the G protein estrogen receptor (GPER) modulate multiple biological activities in response to estrogen, including apoptosis in breast cancer (BC) cells. Here, we investigated whether NDV-D90, a novel strain isolated from natural sources in China, promoted apoptosis by modulating the expression of ERα or the GPER in BC cells exposed to 17β-estradiol (E2). We found that NDV-D90 significantly killed the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and BT549 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We also found that NDV-D90 exerted its effects on the two cell lines mainly by inducing apoptosis but not necrosis. NDV-D90 induced apoptosis via the intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells (ER-positive cells) during E2 exposure not only by disrupting the E2/ERα axis and enhancing GPER expression but also by modulating the expression of several apoptosis-related proteins through ERα-and GPER-independent processes. NDV-D90 promoted apoptosis via the intrinsic signaling pathway in BT549 cells (ER-negative cells), possibly by impairing E2-mediated GPER expression. Furthermore, NDV-D90 exerted its antitumor effects in vivo by inducing apoptosis. Overall, these results demonstrated that NDV-D90 promotes apoptosis by differentially modulating the expression of ERα and the GPER in ER-positive and negative BC cells exposed to estrogen, respectively, and can be utilized as an effective approach to treating BC.