Cancer stem cells are initiating cells of cancer and propagate its growth through self-renewal and differentiation of its daughter cells. CD133 is a cell surface antigen that is present on glioma stem cells and has been used to prospectively isolate glioma stem cells. We hypothesized that a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent and long-lasting immune response against CD133 could be generated by transfecting CD133 mRNA into dendritic cells and vaccinating animals with experimental gliomas. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel humanized mouse model using CD34-positive hematopoietic stem cells. We confirmed the robust simultaneous activation of CD8- and CD4-positive T cells by dendritic cell vaccination with modified CD133 mRNA leading to a potent and long-lived immune response, with subsequent abrogation of CD133-positive glioma stem cell propagation and tumor growth. This study for the first time demonstrates in both a humanized mouse model and in a syngeneic mouse model of glioblastoma that targeting a glioma stem cell-associated antigen is an effective strategy to target and kill glioma stem cells. This novel and simple humanized mouse model for immunotherapy is a significant advance in our ability to test human-specific immunotherapies for glioblastoma.