Novel immunotherapy combinations for genitourinary cancers
I: Several immune checkpoint inhibitors are FDA-approved for metastatic/advanced RCC and urothelial carcinoma (UC) based on improvements in survival. The dendritic cell vaccine, sipuleucel-T, is also approved for patients with mCRPC, based on a 4-month survival benefit.: Preclinical evidence suggests that there is promise in combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with several different classes of anti-cancer agents, including tumor-directed vaccines, cytokines, chemotherapy, and multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here we review immunotherapy combinations currently approved for RCC, UC, and prostate cancer with a focus on emerging therapies. We conducted a search of peer-reviewed publications and recent meeting abstracts and provide an overview of ongoing combination immunotherapy trials for genitourinary malignancies and discussion of preliminary findings where available.: Recently, many potential immunotherapy combinations have emerged. In addition to determining clinical activity, important challenges include investigating additive adverse effects and determining the best sequence of therapy.