Development of personalized cancer vaccines based on neoantigens has become a new direction in cancer immunotherapy. Two forms of cancer vaccines have been widely studied: tumor-associated antigen (including proteins, peptides, or tumor lysates)-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccines and protein- or peptide-adjuvant vaccines. However, different immune modalities may produce different therapeutic effects and immune responses when the same antigen is used. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a more effective neoantigen vaccination method. In this study, we compared the differences in immune and anti-tumor effects between neoantigen-pulsed DC vaccines and neoantigen-adjuvant vaccines using murine lung carcinoma (LL2) candidate neoantigens. The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay showed that 4/6 of the neoantigen-adjuvant vaccines and 6/6 of the neoantigen-pulsed DC vaccines induced strong T-cell immune responses. Also, 2/6 of the neoantigen-adjuvant vaccines and 5/6 of the neoantigen-pulsed DC vaccines exhibited potent anti-tumor effects. The results indicated that the neoantigen-pulsed DC vaccines were superior to the neoantigen-adjuvant vaccines in both activating immune responses and inhibiting tumor growth. Our fundings provide an experimental basis for the selection of immune modalities for the use of neoantigens in individualized tumor immunotherapies.