New treatment modalities with vaccine therapy in renal cell carcinoma

PMID: 31040593
Journal: Urology annals (volume: 11, issue: 2, Urol Ann 2019 Apr-Jun;11(2):119-125)
Published: 2019-04-01

Sönmez MG, Sönmez LÖ


The aim of implementing vaccine therapy is to activate immune response against malignant cells by overcoming the tolerance triggered by the tumor. These treatments are effective using the immune response against cancer. Not every type of cancer is suitable for vaccine therapies. For a vaccine therapy to be implemented, cancer should be immunogenic and contain tissue-specific proteins, should have a slow progression, and treatments should be feasible. For that reason, studies regarding urological cancers are mostly focused on the kidneys and the prostate. Vaccine therapies used in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be categorized under the following titles: autologous tumor cells, dendritic cells, genetically modified tumor cells, and protein/peptide. Although there are old studies on the implementation of vaccine therapies in RCC, researches have only been intensified recently. In addition to their effective potential for lengthening general survival, decreasing tumor burden and cancer development in long term, vaccine treatments are especially effective in metastatic RCC patients. We think that vaccine treatments would be applied more in near future since RCC are immunogenic. In this compilation, we will discuss vaccine therapies used in RCC, which urologists are not so familiar with, in the light of the up-to-date literature.