Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

PMID: 31035598
Journal: Journal of clinical medicine (volume: 8, issue: 5, J Clin Med 2019 Apr;8(5))
Published: 2019-04-27

Van Acker HH, Versteven M, Lichtenegger FS, Roex G, Campillo-Davo D, Lion E, Subklewe M, Van Tendeloo VF, Berneman ZN, Anguille S


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of blood cancer characterized by the uncontrolled clonal proliferation of myeloid hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. The outcome of AML is poor, with five-year overall survival rates of less than 10% for the predominant group of patients older than 65 years. One of the main reasons for this poor outcome is that the majority of AML patients will relapse, even after they have attained complete remission by chemotherapy. Chemotherapy, supplemented with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients at high risk of relapse, is still the cornerstone of current AML treatment. Both therapies are, however, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These observations illustrate the need for more effective and less toxic treatment options, especially in elderly AML and have fostered the development of novel immune-based strategies to treat AML. One of these strategies involves the use of a special type of immune cells, the dendritic cells (DCs). As central orchestrators of the immune system, DCs are key to the induction of anti-leukemia immunity. In this review, we provide an update of the clinical experience that has been obtained so far with this form of immunotherapy in patients with AML.