BACKGROUND: Individuals with constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome (CMMR-D) are characterised by early occurrence of colon cancer, haematological malignancies, and brain tumors (malignant gliomas, high-grade gliomas) in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. High mutational tumor burden is typical of glioblastoma in CMMR-D patients and could be a reason why this type of glioblastoma responds well to immunotherapies, including those that employ checkpoint inhibitors.
OBSERVATION: We describe a case of an adolescent with CMMR-D that had been genetically proven by whole exome sequencing (c.2T>A/p.M1K and c.2521delT/p.W841fs PMS2 gene mutation). The patient presented successively with colon cancer and glioblastoma with a high mutational burden. The individualized glioblastoma therapy was based on the biological tumor profile and included immunotherapy with a combination of vaccination with autologous dendritic cells producing IL-12 and nivolumab, in addition to radiotherapy with metronomic temozolomide. The patient is still alive 21 months after the initial glioblastoma diagnosis and shows a complete therapeutic response documented by repeated magnetic resonance examinations.
CONCLUSION: Individuals with CMMR-D should be regularly examined using established algorithms. Whole body magnetic resonance imaging can play a key role, because it enables the early diagnosis of malignancy during the asymptomatic period. Malignancies in CMMR-D patients usually exhibit a hypermutated genotype and respond to immunotherapy. Conventional glioblastoma therapy is only palliative. Patients can benefit from an individualized therapeutic plan based on the tumor biological profile. Extensive molecular analysis of the tumor tissue is necessary. Key words hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes – glioblastoma – whole exome sequencing – immunotherapy – vaccines – checkpoint inhibitors This study was supported by the research project of the Czech Ministry of Health AZV 16-33209A (Next generation sequencing and express profiling as diagnostic tools for personalized therapeutic plans in children with solid tumors). The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 26. 9. 2018 Accepted: 18. 11. 2018.