Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus induces autophagy-dependent immunogenic cell death in lung cancer cells

PMID: 30210920
Journal: American journal of cancer research (volume: 8, issue: 8, Am J Cancer Res 2018;8(8):1514-1527)
Published: 2018-08-01

Ye T, Jiang K, Wei L, Barr MP, Xu Q, Zhang G, Ding C, Meng S, Piao H


In addition to direct oncolysis, oncolytic viruses trigger immunogenic cell death (ICD) and primes antitumor immunity. We have previously shown that oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain FMW (NDV/FMW), induces apoptosis and/or autophagy in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether oncolytic NDV can induce ICD in lung cancer cells and whether apoptosis or autophagy plays a role in NDV-triggered ICD. To this end, we examined cell surface expression of calreticulin (CRT) on NDV-infected lung cancer cells and measured ICD determinants, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), heat shock protein 70/90 (HSP70/90) and ATP in supernatants following viral infection. Flow cytometric analysis using anti-CRT antibody and PI staining of NDV-infected lung cancer cells showed an increase in the number of viable (propidium iodide-negative) cells, suggesting the induction of CRT exposure upon NDV infection. In addition, confocal and immunoblot analysis using anti-CRT antibody showed that an enhanced accumulation of CRT on the cell surface of NDV-infected cells, indicating the translocation of CRT to the cell membrane upon NDV infection. We further demonstrated that NDV infection induced the release of secreted HMGB1 and HSP70/90 by examining the concentrated supernatants of NDV-infected cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment with either the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK or the necrosis inhibitor Necrostain-1, had no impact on NDV-induced release of ICD determinants in lung cancer cells. Rather, depletion of autophagy-related genes in lung cancer cells significantly inhibited the induction of ICD determinants by NDV. Of translational importance, in a lung cancer xenograft model, treatment of mice with supernatants from NDV-infected cells significantly inhibited tumour growth. Together, these results indicate that oncolytic NDV is a potent ICD-inducer and that autophagy contributes to NDV-mediated induction of ICD in lung cancer cells.