Vaccination of Urological Cancer Patients With WT1 Peptide-Pulsed Dendritic Cells in Combination With Molecular Targeted Therapy or Conventional Chemotherapy Induces Immunological and Clinical Responses
The prognosis of metastatic or relapsed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or bladder cancer (BC) remains poor despite the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade agents. We aimed to investigate the safety and the feasibility of a vaccination with WT1 peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) and OK-432 adjuvant combined with molecular targeted therapy or conventional chemotherapy. Five eligible patients with metastatic or relapsed RCC and five eligible patients with BC were enrolled. No severe adverse events related to a vaccination were observed. Seven patients with RCC or non-muscle invasive BC had durable stable disease and three other patients had disease progression after DC vaccination. DC vaccination augmented WT1 specific immunity and the reduction of regulatory T cells which might be related to clinical outcome. These results indicate that DC-based immunotherapy combined with a molecular targeted therapy or a conventional chemotherapy is safe and feasible for patients in advanced stage of RCC or BC.