Evaluation of the oncolytic potential of RB Mukteshwar vaccine strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in a colon cancer cell line (SW-620)

PMID: 28578522
Journal: Archives of virology (volume: 162, issue: 9, Arch. Virol. 2017 Sep;162(9):2705-2713)
Published: 2017-06-03

Sharma KK, Kalyani IH, Mohapatra J, Patel SD, Patel DR, Vihol PD, Chatterjee A, Patel DR, Vyas B


Virotherapy is emerging as an alternative treatment of cancer. Among the candidate oncolytic viruses (OVs), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has emerged as a promising non-engineered OV. In the present communication, we explored the oncolytic potential of RB Mukteshwar strain of NDV using SW-620 colon cancer cells. SW-620 cells were xenografted in nude mice and after evaluation of the safety profile, 1 x 10 plaque forming units (PFU) of NDV were inoculated as virotherapeutic agent via the intratumoral (I/T) and intravenous (I/V) route. Tumor growth inhibition was compared with their respective control groups by gross volume and histopathological evaluation. Antibody titer and virus survival were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI)/serum neutralization test (SNT) and real-time PCR, respectively. During the safety trial, the test strain did not produce any abnormal symptoms nor weight loss in BALB/c mice. Significant tumor lytic activity was evident when viruses were injected via the I/T route. There was a 43 and 57% tumor growth inhibition on absolute and relative tumor volume basis, respectively, compared with mock control. On the same basis, the I/V route treatment resulted in 40 and 16% of inhibition, respectively. Histopathological examination revealed that the virus caused apoptosis, followed by necrosis, but immune cell infiltration was not remarkable. The virus survived in 2/2 mice until day 10 and in 3/6 mice by day 19, with both routes of administration. Anti-NDV antibodies were generated at moderate level and the titer reached a maximum of 1:32 and 1:64 via the I/T and I/V routes, respectively. In conclusion, the test NDV strain was found to be safe and showed oncolytic activity against the SW-620 cell line in mice.