Human tumors, including those of the hepatobiliary system, express a number of specific antigens that can be recognized by T cells, and may provide potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Dendritic cells (DCs) are rare leucocytes that are uniquely potent in their ability to capture, process and present antigens to T cells. The ability to culture sufficient numbers of DCs from human bone marrow or blood progenitors has attracted a great deal of interest in their potential utilization in human tumor vaccination. CD34(+) peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were obtained from a patient with a hepatocellular carcinoma. The PBSCs were cultured in the X-VIVO 20 medium supplemented with the Flt-3 Ligand (FL), GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF-alpha for 12 days. The morphology and functions of the cells were examined. The generated cells had the typical morphology of DCs. When the DCs were reinjected into the same patient, an augmentation of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity was observed. Concomitantly, an increase in the natural killer (NK) cell activity was also detected in the patient. These results suggest that DCs-based cancer immunotherapy may become an important treatment option for cancer patients in the future.