Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have a limited life expectancy but still a subset of these patients develop immune and clinical responses after immunotherapy including dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. In a recently published phase I/II trials, fourteen HLA-A2 negative patients with progressive mRCC were vaccinated with autologous DC pulsed with allogeneic tumour lysate. Low-dose IL-2 administered subcutaneously was given concomitantly. In this study, we analysed lysate specific proliferation of PBMCs from these patients together with the TH1/TH2 balance of the responding T cells. Also, serum concentrations of IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-18 from these patients and additional thirteen HLA-A2 positive mRCC patients treated with autologous DC pulsed with survivin and telomerase peptides were analysed during vaccination to identify systemic immune responses and potential response biomarkers. In HLA-A2 negative mRCC patients a spontaneous predominance of TH1 secreting tumour lysate specific T cells was observed prior to vaccination in patients attaining stable disease (SD) during treatment whereas patients with continued progressive disease (PD) had a mixed TH1/TH2 response. The TH1/TH2 balance was unchanged during vaccination also when tumour lysate specific T cell responses increased. An increase in IL-12, IL-17 and IL-18 serum concentrations was observed during vaccination but no difference between patients with SD and PD was observed. IL-10 or IL-15 was not measurable in serum.