The role of the immune system in controlling the growth of tumour cells is highly complex and has been extensively debated. It is well documented that the immune system controls virally induced cancers, and there is evidence for a role of specific immunity in other types of tumours. The greater understanding of the regulation and optimization of adoptive, specific immune responses, and the better characterization of tumour-associated antigens indicate the way for active specific vaccination and cell therapy in urological tumours. Currently, bacille Calmette Guerin immunotherapy is established for localized bladder cancer and many experimental immunotherapies are under evaluation. Here we review some timely aspects of tumour immunology, and describe the current status and development of immunotherapy in prostate and bladder cancer.