Effects of tumor stimulator cell modification by infection with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) are described as analysed in vitro in mixed lymphocyte tumor cell cultures (MLTC). Direct antitumor effects were seen with human melanoma or colon-carcinoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner when using live but not UV inactivated virus. When T cell stimulation was measured by [3H]-thymidine uptake, NDV infected tumor stimulator cells did not show an augmentation but rather an inhibitory effect in comparison to non-infected stimulator cells. Virus infected tumor stimulator cells were, however, capable of augmenting the induction of tumor specific cytotoxic T cells in MLTC-CML assays when using murine ESb lymphoma immune cells and syngeneic NDV modified ESb cells as stimulators. A CML stimulatory effect was also shown for NDV modified third party cells and thereof derived conditioned medium. These effects are most likely explained by interferon- which is induced in tumor cells by NDV infection and by interferon-á which is induced in responder cells when stimulated with NDV infected stimulator cells.